Essay on Environmental Pollution

The term “Environmental Pollution” refers to the pollution of the environment, which constitutes our natural resources like – water, air, habitation, soil, forests etc. Everything surrounding us constitutes the environment that we live in and its pollution is referred to as “Environmental Pollution”. The prime causes of environmental pollution are due to human induced factors. Though, the environment has an ability to naturally repair the damages induced, the situation gets worsened if the rate of damage exceeds the rate at which it could be repaired.

Speech on Pollution


Following are long and short essays on Environmental Pollution that throw light on the long and short aspects of environmental pollution. You may find them helpful in preparing for your examinations/assignments. You can select any Environmental Pollution essay as per your need and requirement:

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Everything that surrounds us constitutes the environment. Our natural environment includes – the air we breathe, the water, oceans, forests, soil, vegetation, other living species etc, all are part of the environment. Today, this environment is threatened by a number of human activities leading to “Environmental Pollution”.

Environmental Pollution

Incessant combustion of fossil fuels emits toxic gases, polluting the air; toxic waste is disposed by factories into our water bodies, rendering them unusable and damaging aquatic life; urbanization results in deforestation and hence poor air quality; littering of plastic waste damages the productivity of soil and pollutes water bodies.

Environmental pollution results in more serious consequences like – global warming, unexpected climatic changes, depletion of natural resources, species depletion, and various other adverse affects leading to a lowered sustainability of life on earth. Another prime contributor to the pollution of environment is plastic pollution. Plastic bags those are not disposed of properly, reach the soil and water bodies, polluting them and damaging dependent lives. Being non bio degradable plastic lingers around for years, rendering them useless.


If adequate measures are not taken today to control environmental damages, the day is not far when earth will become an arid planet unable to sustain life. Uncontrolled environmental pollution will soon lead to extreme climatic conditions and natural disasters like floods, famine etc. The nations must realize the urgency to make necessary policy changes and to raise awareness, taking adequate measures towards slowing down environmental pollution. There could be hundreds of examples of human induced environmental pollution, but finding a solution to them, also lies only on humans.



The environment is like our mother. If she is unwell how do you presume that she will be able to nurse or nurture you with her milk for infants and other caring components in her nature for the adults. Her care is a physical, intellectual and emotional support that is healthy for her children. Similarly all the natural resources that belong to our earth are like our inheritance for the safety of our health and future. When we become selfish and dig deep into her resources, we degrade and pollute her. When we become greedy we empty her coffin as well. Nevertheless our health depends on her well-being. It is a direct equation.

Environmental Pollution and Its Effect on Health

It is needless to repeat that environmental pollution has degraded and spread its poisonous tentacles in the very basic human needs – food, water, air, soil – inhaling, eating, drinking damages or has ill-effects on human and animal health. Gaseous emissions from industries, motor vehicle combustions and burning fossil fuels into air; oil spills, solid industrial waste, city garbage, plastic dumps find their way into water; similarly vegetable waste and inorganic methods of farming denudes the soil depriving it of its fertility. Since soil is the source of food, water is for drinking and air is meant for breathing; all three polluted elements inject their toxins into human body and incur diseases in it.

The diseases can include any of these – Asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Skin cancer, Lung cancer, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke, Lead poisoning, Mercury poisoning, Radiation augmented cancers, Allergies, Birth defects, Lung diseases due to occupational exposure to various toxins; the list is endless.


We are all regressing towards an unhealthy future for every living creature not only humans beings. The signals of depleting health are loud and clear – pollution – in air we breathe, water we drink and use for various purposes and inorganic food we process and eat.



The environment gets polluted when we add harmful substances in it, in the form of solid, liquid or gas. The main types of pollution are – air, water, soil, noise, thermal, nuclear and radiation. Its cause is prolonged and continuous development and human activity to fulfill endless materialistic demands of an ever increasing world population.

Causes of Environmental Pollution

Polluted Air – industries consume and run on coal, charcoal, petroleum its products and natural gas. After consumption they produce energy to manufacture industrial goods. In the tail end of the produce a large quantity of toxic gases are belched out or exhaled as byproducts or side-effects of these natural resources. These poisonous gaseous contents are namely – sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and minute untreated dust particles. Motor vehicles pose a similar danger from the fumes they emit.

Lacking Forests and Trees -Trees are a major source of cleaning the air. They inhale CO2 discharged in the atmosphere and exhale oxygen that creatures breathe. And as getting a sore throat by yelling on top of the roof top: stop cutting trees, stop demolishing forests; for the very same reason. But of course they are necessary for us to adorn our houses as wood items. The value of a tree should be as high as a priceless diamond or an exclusive prohibited animal fur. Our refrigerators and other cooling electronics release CFC, which is a gas that drills a hole in earth’s ozone enfolding that is slowly ripping it apart. It is exposing us to the dangers of excessive heat, which the world calls and terms it as climate change.

Contaminated Water – the chemical residues of fertilizers and pesticides used in farming mixes in the soil and runs off into water. The solid and liquid forms of residual wastes from industries; urban garbage and untreated sewage and soiled water will all flow into our water bodies. And that is contaminating our rivers, seas and oceans that pose a danger to our marine life. This will include accidental oil spills from sea tankers, carriers and containers due to human negligence.

Contaminated Soil – we are denuding our soil from fertile to infertile. The indiscriminate use of chemically laced fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides to tend crops, actually contaminates the soil. Unprocessed garbage and sewage encroach upon unoccupied land making it dumping bin in sprawling cities. The green belts are the only grazing grounds left for animals. Drilling, digging and mining all chisel the layers of minerals and granite emptying the soil and leaving the rocky hills, lifeless and corroded. All these factors render the land useless for planting and cropping. Unsystematic, inorganic farming practices leave the soil unsustainable for growing.

Nuclear radiation

The potentially disastrous threat to the environment is from nuclear radiation, termed as the nuclear holocaust. Chernobyl, Russia and the Bhopal, India gas tragedy are succinct examples of what it will lead to and how the world will end up being.


All the causes of pollution are mostly man-made. We will have to reverse from hammering on nature and reserve back whatever little we can from our remaining resources. We will succeed if we willingly or by duress remove those causes that cause environment to degrade and pollute.



In the name of uninhibited progress and development humans have gorged upon the pristine glory that once earth was.  What’s happened to it now is the effect of years of exploitation of its natural resources.  We can look forward not to a bright future, despite our so called ‘progress’, but a damaged one.  The earth and its creatures cannot sustain themselves due to the effects of environmental population.

Human evolution has come full circle – from creation to self-destruction.  Both quantity and quality of our natural wealth – air for life, water for drinking and otherwise, land for forests and food – is forsaking us.

You do not have to see or go far to prove this.  Look at the garbage inside your own home and its pile every few meters of walk.  Deafening horns blare to damage your ears, vehicles emit fumes, pure water is beyond bounds, like a dream. Your throat, eyes and nose are parched, itchy and poisoned due to the effects of pollution.

Effects of Environmental Pollution on Health

Effects on Air

Dust and carbon particulates suspend in the air in the form of haze, smog and smoke are damaging respiratory systems. Caused by emissions from industrial and manufacturing units; burning fossil fuels for energy, vehicular combustion of carbon fumes.

These factors affect the immune system to cause allergies and infections due to viruses transmitted to the air and through infected birds and animals.

Environmental pollution also affects the system and body organs. It causes cancer, bronchitis, respiratory diseases in children and adults; liver, lung and heart diseases; nasal dysfunction due to infection, allergies and inflammations of throat are the effects of air pollution.

Effects on Land, Soil and Food

Both organic and chemical human waste poisons the air with its odor.  It introduces chemicals in soil and water. Land pollution is caused by inundated agricultural practices, in the forms of pesticides and fertilizers for crops; seasonal farming and soil erosion; dust from ploughing; animal manures and carcasses and crop residues.

Effects on Water

Water gets contaminated with waste and debris and chemical effulgent from industries and human made dumps. This water is used for drinking and irrigating crops which either gets damaged or germ infected.  Animals drink and die due to the same water. It also affects marine life. 80% of marine pollution comes from land that drives its entire chemicals, particulates, industrial, agricultural and other dangerous organisms. All water, carrying waste, rubbish and sewage flows towards rivers and empties into oceans in a big way. Animals, other than while grazing, choke on the same water, swallowing plastics and chemically laced objects. This affects their organs and hastens mortality rate in them also.

Effects on Food (Safety)

Soil and water pollution contaminates food, which further affects health. Food carries and laced with chemical components obtained through the first step in their cycle of growth and ends with their produce and sale in the markets. Beginning with the use of fertilizers and pesticides and contaminated water in the soil, to use of preservatives after harvest, to increase their life.

Effects on Climate

Climate change is defined as variation in normal weather patterns, caused by pollution. It affects the physical and biological entities in the bio-sphere.

Also referred to as global warming, is over-heating of earth’s hemisphere. The heat of sun’s rays and through emissions, cause the protective, ozone layer to slowly corrode; trapping the heat inside.

The heat is trapped uninhibited for 50 – 200 years, after that it is emitted. Its effects will be felt fatally by our coming generation. Extreme and irregular hot and cold temperatures affect humans, animals and the bio-sphere. Other unstable climactic features are – famine, parched land, intermittent or shallow rain and snow, suspended haze and smog of carbon particles in the atmosphere; also severe dust storms due to denuded soil; thunderstorms, avalanches, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.


Man has splurged enough on his natural environmental wealth at the cost of the health of nature’s creatures – animate and inanimate. The effects are emerging now at high speed and weighing critically in 100s and 1000s of years thence.



Even as we introduce the topic at the very start and without copious wordy delays at the outset let us make an appeal to stop smoking. Smoke fumes kill the one who smokes and those innocents who are subject to passive smoking. Smoke of any kind is not just a health issue, but a serious endanger to the environment inside or out.

Solutions to Prevent Environmental Pollution

Similarly control over and changing farming methods to suit the environment, even gradually, after the prolonged damage is advisable. Farmers have to be nudged to see profit in eco-friendly farming methods with the help of government aided and subsidized, farmer- friendly, proven practices. Here are some effective solutions to prevent environmental pollution:

Clean and Green

We simply have to try and curtail our daily needs by keeping them small, simple and minimalist. And fine tuning these to comply with nature and its processes. We must rid our habitats and dwellings of unnecessarily accumulating waste – to be disposed off, treated and recycled – in organic forms for future usage.

Dwellings and toilets should be spic and span, clean and disinfected, to avoid catching infections. Industries belting smoke should be strapped by regulatory norms. Household chimneys should be attached with smoke filter gauzes.

Ban on plastics should be turned into a movement. Its use will be deterred by issuing a huge fine on it. This will encourage the use of paper packets recycled from waste. Be as ethnic as possible in dressing up your homes and houses as hand –crafted and semi-tailored items are original and abide by an eco-friendly template.

Eco-friendly Farming and Food

Crops contain lesser amount of toxics when fertilizers are treated organically. Result is wholesome and healthy food.

Consumption of greenhouse gasses to treat meat processing plants is 7 times more than that treated for vegan diet. Other than economic the major loss is inevitable extinction of the animal race, from the environment. This will not be less than a curse for the existence of human race. The truth is that a non-vegetarian diet is not considered unnatural be it chicken, pork, mutton or beef. However those who seek for a substitute these are available in the markets – seitan, tofu, legumes or tempeh – in their vegetarian form.

Hybrid food farming should be replaced by genetically produced organic food. Vested interests prefer hybrid forms because they are produced in large quantities, are pest resistant, preserved and last longer. Even so organically produced food stays unparalleled in its time tested quality and as healthy diet. We must aim at conserving and producing genetically pure crops and vegetables as they will go a long way in keeping us healthily alive and robust.

‘Greener’ Cleaning Options

Chemical toxins and exposure to synthetic chemical solvents used for cleaning parts and surfaces cause skin bruises, corrosion, and allergies specially in children. These need not be tolerated as there are ‘green’ solvents and disinfectants, which are effective, economical and observe environment compliance regulations.

Hazardous Waste Recycling

Treatment of hazardous waste material before disposal combined with recycling plastic waste will help unclog sewage pipes, gutters and garbage landfills.

Preservation of Natural Resources: Saying no to Excessive and Illegal Mining Practices

Governments are slowly waking up to the clarion call of climate change and environment degradation. Several citizen forums and activists including the United Nations are applying pressure on countries to construct regulatory bodies as watch dogs for controlling natural resources ‘piracy’ and ‘poaching’, so to speak.

Educating Environment

Developing tropical countries possess the largest bio-diversity and thick green forest cover plus a phenomenally expanding population. These factors render them to be ‘sitting ducks’ to environment hungry hunters and exploiters; even as they become prey to anti-environment policies. Environmental education is the only direct course to its awareness and protection. We should educate young and old generations of the fragile condition of the biosphere and our entwined links with the eco-system.


The political, economical, social and ethical stakes are high on preserving the purity of earth. Our eco-system is inter-related. Over stress on one half will imbalance the other. We ought to understand and approach the contingency and onus of improving our environment, as resting on our shoulders alone. There is no other substitute. It’s a legacy, whose mainstay lay in an attitude of care and protection: if we wish to continue breathing clean air, eat wholesome food and inherit a green, environment friendly earth.

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